Peter holds a PhD, awarded in collaboration with Ghent University entitled, “The development of the private security industry in Belgium (1907-1990). A historical-criminological perspective on contemporary changes in security and crime control”. His research interests are concerned with the long-term trends in the public–private distribution of security, and comparative approaches to the pluralisation of policing over time. He also has interests in private militias, the changing patterns of crime and crime control, and theoretical issues regarding crime prevention from a historical perspective. Pieter is a visiting scholar and visiting lecturer at the University of Sheffield, School of Law.